Current Issue:
10, Number 1, June 2019
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El Salvador’s Drivers of Poverty: Low Levels of Education, Lack of Access to
Water and Sanitation, and Violence and Crime


This article discusses the underlying problems associated with high poverty rates in El
Salvador. El Salvador has advanced access to basic public services but fails to ameliorate the
threats of poverty that negatively impact social development. This article reviews explanations
for why poverty has not improved more substantially and what some of the key drivers are for
poverty in El Salvador, focusing on low levels of education, lack of access to water and
sanitation, and high rates of violence and crime. It also discusses ethical aspects related to
these three drivers of poverty. The article concludes with some brief suggestions on what El
Salvador should do in the future to lower poverty rates and increase economic growth.

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Growing Inequality in the People’s Republic of China:
Dimensions and Solutions


This article examines the current state of inequality in China through a variety of lenses.
Following the establishment of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) by the Chinese
Communist Party in 1949, China reduced inequalities during the subsequent decades.
However, after transitioning to a market-based economy, which started in 1978, under the
leadership of Deng  Xiaoping and subsequent very high economic growth, China has become
one of the most unequal countries in the world in numerous aspects such as income,
opportunities like getting higher education, and healthcare. This article looks at some of the
dimensions and reasons for these inequalities and explains some possible remedies

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Women’s Rights Gone Missing:
Gender Inequality and HIV Prevalence in Malawi

By Dezimey KUM

This article examines the socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics underlying gender
inequalities and how it is related to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in Malawi. Malawi is one of the countries that has
made unsatisfactory progress in reducing the HIV prevalence rate, especially among women.
Some of the main reasons for Malawi’s little progress is due to gender inequality, specifically in
the areas of violence, education, empowerment, and healthcare. This article examines these
four areas and how much progress has been made in reducing the gender gap in these areas
in the interest of controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Malawi

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Gender Inequality in Guatemala:
Why Girls Receive Less Education Than Boys


This article focuses on gender-based educational inequality in Guatemala, which despite some
recent progress is still pervasive. Especially indigenous girls often receive little to no education.
This article examines the evolution of gender-based educational inequality in terms of adult and
youth literacy rates and primary, secondary and tertiary school enrollment. It then discusses
ethical and political aspects of gender inequality in Guatemala, including how educational
inequality is related to a societal dependency on girls and women for the collection of drinking
water. The article concludes with some basic recommendations.

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Bangladesh Development
Research Center (BDRC)
The Global Majority E-Journal